He could apply his knowledge of acceleration to better understand gravity. It can also mean a change in direction, like when you go round a roundabout, causing you to lean towards the side of the car. The cylinder is rotated faster and faster until the acceleration eases and the movement stays constant. But even once the speed is constant, you still feel the accelerated motion—you feel yourself being pinned to the outer edge of the ride. So if someone stood in the very centre of the ride perhaps held by a brace, stopping them from falling to the edge , they would notice all those weird effects we saw under special relativity—that those on the edge will contract in length, and their clocks will tick at a slower rate.
The equivalence principle tells us that the effects of gravity and acceleration are indistinguishable. In thinking about the example of the cylindrical ride, we see that accelerated motion can warp space and time. It is here that Einstein connected the dots to suggest that gravity is the warping of space and time.
Gravity is the curvature of the universe, caused by massive bodies, which determines the path that objects travel. That curvature is dynamical, moving as those objects move. To date, his predictions—as strange as they may sound—have all stood the test of time. Light travels through spacetime, which can be warped and curved—so light should dip and curve in the presence of massive objects. This effect was first observed in , analysing starlight during a solar eclipse. Astronomers found that starlight that passed very close to the sun was very slightly offset in position compared to the same starlight when measured at night.
Similar to how the passage of time is changed under special relativity, general relativity predicts that massive objects will also dilate time. The more massive the object, the more noticeable the effect. On board each satellite is an atomic clock, and your position on the planet can be determined by checking the time broadcast by the satellites above you and comparing those times against the known position of each satellite. Both effects have been confirmed by a range of experiments , including the Gravity Probe B satellite.
Equipped with extremely sensitive gyroscopes, this satellite measured the tiny twists and warps in spacetime made by Earth as it moves and rotates through space. Since the curvature of spacetime is dynamical, moving objects should create ripples in space that permeate through the universe. Imagine two very massive objects, such as black holes. If those objects were to collide, they could potentially create an extreme disturbance in the fabric of spacetime, moving outwards like the ripples in a pond. But how far away could such waves be felt? Einstein predicted that gravitational waves existed, but believed they would be too small to detect by the time they reached us here on Earth.
We needed instruments capable of detecting a signal one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton 10 meter. In the LIGO experiment, a laser is directed into a large tunnel structure.
At the end of each arm, a mirror reflects the light from the laser back to where it came from, and the two beams merge back into one. Normally, the laser beams should recombine at exactly the same time. But if a gravitational wave comes rippling through space while the detectors are switched on, that ripple will stretch one arm of the L-shaped structure before stretching the other.
Gravity's Shocking Alternative Ending Revealed (SPOILER)
The gravitational wave distorts the passage of the light, resulting in a particular kind of interference light pattern detected at the end. On 11 February , the LIGO teams announced the direct discovery of a gravitational wave matching the signal predicted from the collision of two black holes. Astronomers at the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization BICEP2 telescope had supposedly discovered evidence of gravitational waves, but that evidence was later recalled, as it did not pass closer scrutiny.
Rather than listening for the direct signal of a gravitational wave as it rolled past our planet the setup at LIGO , the BICEP2 team analysed swirls of light within the cosmic microwave background GLOSSARY cosmic microwave background The faint remnant of light that permeates the whole universe, left over from the heat of the big bang.
They theorised that during the early expansion of the universe, tiny gravitational waves would have disturbed the light around them, which would have been amplified into a larger pattern as the universe expanded, coalescing into these patterns in the cosmic microwave background. The announcement was made before the BICEP2 data went through more rigorous analysis and feedback from their colleagues. Instead, it looked likely that the patterns of light were not caused by gravitational waves, but instead by the dust inside our own galaxy as it interacted with magnetic fields.
The successful LIGO experiment has ushered in a new era of astronomy. Before now, astronomers have largely focused on the study of the electromagnetic spectrum including light and radio waves. What we do know is that this technique will allow us to better understand the most massive objects in the universe such as black holes, neutron stars, and supernovae; and it will provide us with a new window to study how the universe formed.
One unanswered question is whether or not gravity is propagated by the graviton—the proposed but so-far undetected particle responsible for gravitational interactions. Even more pressing, we know that general relativity is, in its current form, incompatible with the other pillar of modern physics: But it has produced many unexpected, unintuitive predictions that have been confirmed again and again for over a hundred years.
This has been one of the greatest journeys in the history of science, involving not just Newton and Einstein, but thinkers and doers all around the world who have worked to put these theories to the test. Even so, the schism between relativity and quantum mechanics remains.
Understanding gravity—warps and ripples in space and time Expert reviewers. Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein were pivotal in advancing our understanding of gravity. Newton and the laws of gravity Newton published one of the most celebrated works of science, the Principia , in Newton realised that gravity was responsible for objects falling to the ground and for the orbit of celestial objects. Newton was well aware of this when he said, Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the consideration of my readers.
Experiments in a smooth-moving vehicle yield the same results as experiments conducted on land. Space and time are linked Almost years after Galileo, Einstein pondered the consequences of relativity in the context of an important factor: Not even the very comfortable, or large and employed should be able to think about that without great discomfort. If economies made it easier to live on very small means they might be able to make themselves marketable again and still live a decent life.
Not even the UN seems to have all that good a definition about what an adequate lifestyle can be defined as. How much material should be used to be considered a good shelter? If the young and the poor face threats of extinction — the old and poor ish face just as great a threat. Maybe war makes certain the scythe cuts more indiscriminately but that is a savage fight for survival. That is also a core concern of all the five major world religions and even some of the older extinct religions.
A lot of us consume things the way other people consume food. The economy loves it but it seems to make problems in terms of disposal and fuel consumption. But the older I get the less I want or really need and am open to suggestions and would rather voluntarily adapt to shrinking means and fading strength than find they are being ripped from my grasp.
But how much square footage? And how many changes of cloths and how much furniture? It has to have a bed, desk and maybe a book case and cloths closet, computer and wifi and carpet and some curtains. With all the riches of culture and social life within easy reach and cheaply available. Petersburg without the computer and wifi. They actually lived very plainly. The average college student has more stuff in their dorm rooms then they did.
By the end of the LBJ administration in the poverty rate had been reduced to The poverty rate continued to fall to an all time low of As of , the last year for which data is available, in the midst of the greatest recession the world has seen since the Great Depression, the rate was We are about as likely to end poverty as we are to end war. It takes only a couple hours.
It should be required reading for everyone at the UN and for everyone in American politics. For some reason, we learn to ignore the fundamental basis of our existence on this planet as we grow up. The book points out what all of us already know, somewhere in the deep recesses of our minds. Addressing poverty addresses subjectively perceived overpopulation. I watched the video and other than the illustration of how lightly populated the world really is, the rest seems to be nonsense. Ocean waves can have greater height in not very choppy seas than that collective bounce and the calculations ignore the fact that the topography of the earth varies in height by several miles.
Those speculations go in the same category as: But it is a lot of fun to think about. Human beings are also really walking water about the same density as seawater. Our blood is, in fact, modified seawater. What on earth are you talking about satori? What do butterfly sneezes have to do with Bernanke and quantitative easing or low Federal Reserve Bank interest rates and bond buy backs? Obviously the country went into a financial crash that was very unexpected. The economy of the Globe has undergone recessions and crashes since the 17th century — and maybe longer.
Money is not a stable substance. It is an abstraction. I think it was trying to say that 7 billion people closely packed I may have missed when the video mentioned how much sq footage each person took could all fit in an area the size of Texas. In college, decades ago, I heard a variation of this idea that claimed — if every person on earth under 6 bln. You could give any number to the base Sq. Footage you like and look up total areas of various things countries or cities or even large buildings, like the Sears or John Hancock Tower in Chicago, to figure how many people it would take to fit all the people in the world at 2 or more sq.
It is only a game of statistics. I think it may have contained more apartments than people at the time, but I threw the drawing away decades ago. It would be easy to recreate. It is obvious people require far more room per person that close packing, like the Philippine children showed in the photo, or the hypothetical example in LA, but there is nothing particularly fixed or sacrosanct about the amount of space a person or business occupies.
There are HUD code requirements for minimum room sizes etc. The future might think up very compact ways of living and think we were primitive and inefficient and not as comfortable as they had them. They may have very different tastes in the matter. The Palace of Versailles held somewhere like 5 to 10, people in one complex of buildings and they were never packed tightly.
The perception of personal space is very subjective. A large room in a cold climate would not be nearly as comfortable as a small room with low ceiling. I should clarify something I wrote earlier about charity and hypocrisy. Organizations that claim they help the poor but devote too much of it to their own fund raising activities and their own salaries they are usually only phone calls of mass mailings can be seen as hypocrites, or worse, thieves.
Churches or organizations that claim they help the poor and raise millions for that purpose, but divert some of it for their own needs or salaries are also, sometimes, breaking the law. Jim Baker went to jail for that. People have been claiming the earth was overpopulated since they began looking at each other. It must be some instinctive trait in human nature that is somehow always misinformed. But the amount of space people require to feel comfortable and even happy can vary widely depending on culture and habits. Cities are amazingly compact and house unimaginably dense populations — at levels historic societies could never dream of — and yet they are still the most desirable and expensive places to live on earth.
I would give my eyeteeth to live in a city like Manhattan — if I could dream of affording it. Another thing — the standard of even public housing today is so much higher than that of historic poverty levels, it is obvious that squalor can be eradicated. The standard of living in this country is primarily the single family, three bedroom house but that could be a thing of the past too as people have fewer children.
The very idea likely springs from the drug induced haze in the mind of a hippie from the sixties…wwwowwww, man, COOL! By the maximum possible number of humans possible to bring to breeding age. The true measure is the burden on national and planetary resources to build the infrastructure essential and inseparable to raising, feeding, clothing, transporting, educating, medicating and entertaining residents of a city or neighborhood or state or country in the manner accustomed and anticipated divided by their number and projected life in years.
Just because it is possible to design and construct a subterranean human environment much like an ant hill does not mean we SHOULD. Obviously that number is different for a rural village in an impoverished area of Africa from New York City. Other than by accident of birth location, how would anyone judge without bias how much land one should be able own, how much money they should be able to make, or how many children they should be able to have? Another question of significance, preferebly before every birth. Videos are for entertainment purposes only, they serve to illustrate how our perception, not necessarily based on facts, affects our thought processes.
After all, we have folks on a mission, conducting rogue geo-engineering experiments based on their subjective assessments that in turn affect our reality.
Frequently Asked Questions
As stated earlier, imo, eradication of extreme poverty is within the reach, flick of the switch, really. You are desperate to keep the lid on it because you are afraid if it opens you might loose something to strong winds perhaps, or a swift current? Are you making those children fond of you or are they more likely to bury you in that box and forget you? You may be earth sheltered whether you want to be or not but when you are dead it will be wasted on you.
I am not suggesting that earth sheltering is a solution for all urban or suburban construction but some places in this country are idiotic for not considering alternatives to the usual ways things are done. If I were living in the Great Plains states I would consider alternatives to the exposed stick built house. Harvard University has subsurface spaces that are anything but catacombs. And urban density does not have to look dense.
Suburban communities do not show state of the art in originality or creativity either. Existing vested interests in the form of zoning law often prevents that. But what on earth is wrong with seeing things as they might be? It might even be keeping my blood pressure down. Are you sure you want to refuse entry to people who might be able to work for far less money and find it better than what they were used to? In other words sweat equity on a community wide scale?
New York City was once able to do that very effectively for people with next to nothing and the world seems still to make people who have next to nothing. There are no wide open prairies for homesteaders but perhaps the government, at all levels, could sponsor, with seed money, homesteader towns or small cities? They could do it perhaps by quarantining capital and allowing the inhabitants to establish their own much reduced wage and cost of living rates restricted to their won membership.
Rather like what China did during the Mao years. They might take members from immigrants and natives. Money is a tool but perhaps they could fashion their own financial tools until their situation allows them to mesh more effectively with the greater economy, if they chose to? The Shakers managed to keep a high standard of cooperative living using something like this principle.
If someone wanted to leave one of their communities they were given back whatever they had brought in, in terms of cash or assets. They would be pioneers and build their environment under controlled financial conditions, and even a more controlled social environment, including their own health care and educational provisions. If it worked well they might attract more affluent outsiders and gradually phase the community into the higher cost economy. In a way it is making little Chinas?
They might chose to stay or sell out and move on to the mainstream. If they can live at low wages and provide for a good standard of living, they might be able to build splendid environments that would attract more affluent people to settle there too, without risk of swamping them in higher costs of living. You propose the most intrusive government control imaginable: And you would limit that right, apparently, only to the employed or the independently wealthy. Employment in this economy is not always something one can count on for uninterrupted spans. Even family fortunes can be lost to investment mistakes.
China may have difficulty enforcing that policy in the future in as much as they no longer have to restrict their national development to the policies of the past. They did that while they were trying to develop the infrastructure of the country free of external debt. Now they are creditors.
The one child policy may take a hit. What you are hinting is that you really want a one child policy but without the inconvenience of communist economics that went with it. How is the idea any more Utopian than China for the last 60 years? Or even the kibbutz movement of Israel? They can be far less of an eyesore than gulag walls and fences for hundreds of miles making modern DMZs. Government has been throwing money around like it was confetti.
Maybe they should take a chance on some new ideas than in supporting the status quo than never ceases to age.
Low interest loans in not utopia but grants in aid might save bundles considering the very likely increase in health care costs. They can even do those with some training and education. It might save bundles in cooling and heating as well. The can start with being off the grid and reintroduce themselves when they are more established and capable of providing a surplus perhaps?
How about establishing modern pueblos of the latest design in the desert southwest and designing them to nearly disappear from view or blend it with scenery until one is either very close to them or in them. They might very well resemble ancient buildings and might even use ancient materials like stone and adobe. The Egyptian Architect Hassan Fathay suggested this idea for public housing and very fine private housing, including some very up scale homes, for Egypt.
He even made sure than old crafts techniques were employed that would otherwise die out to an adulterated mass production. The communities could go about the affairs as though they were building a work of art intended to last for centuries because simple materials close to their original state seem to do that best.
They do not have to copy the styles of historic architecture — only the techniques. They might encourage exquisite handwork for those more capable for patronizing it and simpler versions for the same for the less well fixed. A few jewels in a plain setting can very effective. Remember that NYC would look utopian and futuristic to anyone alive in and would stagger anyone who knew that city in It is ridiculous to dispense with human labor and spend big money for sophisticated hardware and building equipment when it might be possible to use less of the expensive machinery and building technology and avoid some of the large financing costs because of it.
They might actually slow the clock down in these communities and encourage a longer attention span at the same time. If they need an industry like glass or ceramics, they deign and built it and it have their own style and be a mark of their own identity the way pottery can be identified by region or nation. Thick stonewalls can maintain cooler interior temps. The Indian city of New Delhi was built with the labor of very low skilled workers 9both men and women using techniques as old as the ancient Romans. What if thousands of that level of workmanship form brick layers to higher craft techniques built their own homes as part of their deferred pay and something they might choose to live in or sell at a later date to more affluent buyers?
They would also build businesses and commercial premises. It might be possible that once the territory of the community has been acquired they might be able to control the Time of this place — as Kevin lynch once put it — although he did not coin that phrase to describe an act of intention or a design element. Piles of stone and brick or abobe blocks and lumber, plus labor, equals buildings and the time element can rest entirely on their own volition and priorities. On welfare they are a cost to society but in an organized community that would be established to help them convert simple labor into more valuable artifacts, they might see the importance of establishing a very self-rewarding work ethic and way of life — including some food production.
They could protect themselves from commercial and financial exploitation. And even establish self-government and possibly avoiding the debt spiral many could be caught in otherwise.. They would be the origin of their own economy. Can anything be more attractive or effective than self-investment if they have the push to start? BTW — chartable groups and even churches could sponsor them too. In other words, instead of letting established commercial interests dictate the type, cost and quality of their way of life, they take all the issues into their own hands and do the job themselves, starting with the planning of the place and ending with the food on their tables and the vessels and dishes they use.
Christopher Alexander has as explored this idea too and publish a three volume pattern language that could be helpful. But that can be established with a kind of zoning. New York City and Boston profiles are a matter of laws establishing heights and use. It would beat the hell out of that Swedish arts and crafts center that the rioters burned out. They might even value what the schools have to teach. Probably not one of them had a hand in building anything in those neighborhoods because established businesses and contractors made sure they got the contracts.
The well healed and established tend to have more pull with local development authorities. The hippies were too young to think like this. No, Its something like post partum depression I think? I can just imagine a desert site with layers of fragmented sedimentary stone just waiting to be dug up with earth moving equipment, sorted, sized and built into gorgeous post modern towns. They are out there. They could make deals with Oregon and New England to get the pine, oak maple and other timbers. There are people who like the idea of barter and this is the scale to do it at.
They would swap that lovely building stone for whole trees I see all the time on local roads in flatbeds. If the township were near a rail line they are golden. If they had limestone — they could produce their own cement. They can even barter for the transport costs. A fortune pissed away on nothing much! This whole economy is becoming fortunes pissed away on nothing much. And a whole lot of it gets sucked up to Oz or down to Davy Jones locker and they never know what to do with the material.
I just read the guide to buying Japan bonds — not something I am likely to do but one does like to try to improve oneself, if only to try to preserve a sense of relevance and even importance. There are times like the last 40 years when thought and effort both seem useless and a waste of time. But one does like to fill a vacuum. That is, the way things fall, idea and derivatives may as well be profoundly anti-establishment… fed up and determined to eradicate corruption at any cost. Puhlease — as long as we have dictators, monarchs, even elected politicians, we are subject to their whims and wishes.
We now have more hunger and poverty in the US than at any time since the Great Depression — more on food stamps, more children going hungry, more depending on food banks to supplement food needed for their families. That seems to be the norm now. Zero Sum applies to finite resources. Wealth is not finite.
The more leaps and bounds we see in agriculture, the larger the source of food is. The higher tech the water plants become, the more water will be available in urban areas. Why should there be a free ride for those who may not contribute any wealth to society? It seems that lately the moochers in society are winning the political war… as long as there are other planets to colonize, the only limiting factor is technology to expand and utilize those wasted resources from water to minerals.
I feel we should be encouraging entrepreneurs, not punishing them with a huge tax burden. OOTS and many others always seem to want a system that sheds people rather then changes the practice. Historically, the larger the population, the greater the country was. I forgot to add a sentence about Japanese bonds.
The central bank must buy the bonds the government issues because private investors are increasingly reluctant to take them. The money that would be parked in bonds is shunted to stocks and other assets like gold, but those investments — especially stocks, are facing brick walls too. The government is trying to ignore the obvious: Inflation and devaluation of the currency will be the result of that short circuit.
The bank deposits of the country are now being put to service of the national deficits.
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The same is happening here and seems to be happening all over the industrialized world. Are you suggesting that a good idea can be deadly to the status quo? Would you say the idea is illustrative of satori? I forget to mention — the communities would have modern water supply, waste disposal and electrical service.
But they may like the idea of starting from scratch and phase in and creating a lifestyle and pattern of consumption they created from scratch. It could be an interesting and very educational way of life. They would also be bound by the constitution of this country and their home state. The local ordinances would be the responsibility. That is very much an ideal too. Sustainability may not be a matter of choice anymore, but it is not at all well defined.
First chapter for ending extreme poverty
They might want to start that from scratch too or honor those of their inhabitants? That may be one of the ways these communities would establish their identity. The constitution answers that question but allows for areas like the Amish that dominate their traditional geographic area. I tend to think people can do better than that. The constitution of this country does too. This country, the states and municipal governments use lower tax rates all the time for profit making enterprises to encourage their growth.